Monday, 9 October 2017




Diversity In Living Organisms

Notes:

1.Classification: Grouping of the animal based on similar and disimilar features.

2.Basis Of Classification: Different characteristic are used to determine the hierarchy of classification.

Primary characteristics that determines the broadest division in classification are independent of any other characteristic.Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic cell organisation is the primary characteristics of classification.Being a unicellular or multicellular organism is the next basic feature of classification.
Next level of classification depend on whether organisms are aototrophic and heterotrophic.
Further classification depend on various levels of the body of these organism.

3.Evolution: The process by which complex form of a simple organism called evolution.

4.Five kingdom System of classification: Five kingdom System was proposed by R.H. Whittaker.He divided all the organisms in five kingdom - Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia.




(i) Monera:
Unicellular prokaryotic organism.
Either heterotrophic or autotrophic.
Cell wall may be present or absent.




(ii) Protista:
Unicellular Eukaryotic.
May be heterotrophic or autotrophic
It may be use cilia or flagella.




(iii) Fungi:
Heterotrophic Organism.
Naturally saprophytes.
Cell wall are composed of chitin.


*Lichens are symbiotic association between algae and fungi.

(iv) Kingdom Plantae:
These are autotrophes and use chlorophyll for photosynthesis.
Cell wall is made up of cellulose.
It is divided into two parts: Cryptogams and Phanerogams.




(v) Kingdom Animalia:
These are heterotrophic and mostly mobile.
Cell wall absent.




5.Types of Kingdom Plantae:

(i) Cryptogams: The plants whose reproductive organs are very inconspicuous are called 'Cryptogamae.' It is further divided into three parts:
Thallophyta: Body is thallus means the body is not divided into root, stems or leaves. Example: Spirogyra, mostly aquatic plants.

Bryophyta: Bryophyta are the amphibian of plant kingdom because it survive both on land and in water.Their body has not true root, true stem, and true leaves lacking vascular tissue.Example: Funaria.

Pteridophyta: It well differentiated plant body with vascular tissue. Even, First terrestrial plant are pteridophyta.

(ii) Phanerogams: In phanerogams, we place all those plants who bear flowers and seed. They are further divided into two parts:
a. Gymnosperms: In this, plants bear flower and seed but seeds are not lie in seed coat. It is usually perennial. Evergreen and woody. Example: Pinus, deodar.

b. Angiosperms: In this, plants bear flower and seed and seed are also closed in seed coat. Seed contain fruit. Based on number of cotyledons in seed, seed are divided into two types:


      6. Kingdom Animalia: These are multicellular heterotrophic and mostly mobile. Further classification is based on extent and type of body design differentiation.
      (i) Porifera:
      Body bears pores all over the body.
      Non-mobile.
      It have marine habitat.
      Minimal differentiation with hard exo-skeleton.


      Example: Sycon.
      (ii) Coelenterata:
      It have cavity in the body.
      Live in water.
      Some live in colonies (corals).
      Other have solitary life span (hydra).

      Example: Jellyfish.

      (iii) Nematoda:

      It have bilaterally symmetry.
      Body is cylendrical with no real organs.
      Pseudocoelom is present.
      It is parasitic in nature.
                Example: Ascaris.

      (iv) Platyhelminthes:

      Commonly called flat worm.
      Bilaterally symmetrical body and triploblastic.
      No true coelom.
      It is either free living or parasitic.
                Example: Tape worm.

      (v) Mollusca:

      Placed soft organism.
      It have bilaterally symmetry.
      Reduced coelom and segmentation.
      It have open circulatory system.
                Example: Snail.

      (vi) Annelida:

      Body are segmented.
      Bilaterally simmetrical and triploblastic.
      Have true body cavity.
      Closed circulatory system.
      It have various habitats - fresh and marine water as well as land.
                Example: Earthworm.

      (vii) Arthropoda:

      It have jointed legs.
      Bilaterally symmetrical segmented.
      Open circulatory system.
      It have largest species (approximately 4000).
                Example: Prawn.

      (viii) Echinodermata:

      All are marine habitat.
      Spiny skinned free living.
      Triploblastic with coelomic cavity.
      Hard calcium corbonate skeleton.
                Example: Starfish

      (ix) Chordata:

      It have notochord.
      Gill slit are present.
      A dorcal hollow nerve and developed triploblastic and coelomate.
                Example:Fish

      (x) Protochordata:

      It are bilaterally symmetrical and triploblastic with coelom.
      It are marine with a notochord that provide a place for muscle to attach for easy movement.
               Example: Balanoglossus

      (xi) Vertebrata:

      It have true vertebral column and internal skeleton.
      It are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, coelomic and segmented.